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红外材料

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1.  Germanium (Ge)


Germanium (Ge) is the preferred lens and window material for high performance infrared imaging systems in the 8–12 μm wavelength band. Its high refractive index makes Ge ideal for low power imaging systems because of minimum surface curvature. Chromatic aberration is small, often eliminating the need for correction.

 

Crystallographic properties
Syngony Cubic
Crystal Form Poly or Single Crystal
Lattice Constant 5.66
Cleavability <111>, non-perfect
Molecular Weight 72.6
Physical properties
Density, at 20 °C 5.33
Hardness, Mohs 6.3
Dielectric Constant for 9.37 × 109 Hz at 300 K 16.6
Melting 937
Thermal Conductivity, W/m·K at at 293 K 59
Thermal Expansion, 1/K at 298 K 6.1 × 10-6
Specific Heat Capacity, J/(kgK) at 273-373 K 0.074
Bandgap, eV 0.67
Knoop Hardness, kg/mm2 800
Youngs Modulus, Gpa 102.66
Shear Modulus, GPa 67.04
Bulk Modulus, GPa 77.86
Debye Temperature, K 370
Poissons Ratio 0.278
Elastic Coefficient C11=129, C12=48.3, C44=67.1
Apparent Elastic Limit 89.6 MPa (13000psi)
Chemical properties
Solubility in water None
Solubility in acids Soluble
Molecular Weight 72.59

2. Silicon (Si) 


Silicon (Si) is grown by Czochralski pulling techniques (CZ) and contains some oxygen that causes an absorption band at 9 microns.To avoid this, material can be prepared by a Float-Zone (FZ) process. Optical silicon is generally lightly doped (5 to 40 ohm cm) for best transmission above 10 microns, and doping is usually boron (P-type) and phosphorus (N-type). After doping silicon has a further pass band: 30 to 100 microns which is effective only in very high resistivity uncompensated material.
 
CZ Silicon is commonly used as substrate material for infrared reflectors and windows in the 1.5-8 micron region. The strong absorption band at 9 microns makes it unsuitable for CO2 laser transmission applications, but it is frequently used for laser mirrors because of its high thermal conductivity and low density. Application as window, lens in the 1.5 - 8 um region; Mirror for CO2 laser and spectrometer applications.
 

Crystallographic properties
Syngony Cubic
Lattice Constant, A 5.43
Physical properties
Density 2.33g/cm3
Hardness, Mohs 7
Dielectric Constant for 9.37 x 109 Hz 13
Melting point, оС 1414
Thermal Conductivity, W/m·K at 313 K 163
Thermal Expansion, 1/K at 293 K 2.6x10-6
Specific Heat Capacity, J/(kg°C) 712.8
Bandgap, eV 1.1
Knoop Hardness, kg/mm2 1100
Youngs Modulus, Gpa 130.91
Shear Modulus, GPan 79.92
Bulk Modulus, GPa 101.97
Debye Temperature, K 640
Poissons Ratio 0.28
Chemical properties
Solubility in water None
Molecular Weight 28.09

3、ZnS material:


ZnS MultiSpectral Under intense heat and pressure, defects within the crystalline lattice are virtually eliminated, leaving a water-clear material with minimal scatter and high transmission characteristics from 0.4 to 12 microns. This material is particularly well suited for high-performance common aperture systems that must perform across a broad wavelength spectrum.

Specifications:

Material: ZnS MultiSpectral
Diameter Tolerance: --------------------- +0.0, -0.1mm
Thickness Tolerance: -------------------- ±0.1mm
Clear Aperture: ---------------------------->85%
Parallelism: -----------------------------------3 arc minute
Surface Quality: ----------------------------80-50 scratch and dig
Wavefront Distortion: -------------------- λ /2 per 25mm @633mm
Bevel: -----------------------------------------Protective  (<0.2mm x 45° )
Coating: -------------------------------------- Optional (Uncoated, AR Coating, etc.)


4. ZnSe material


ZnSe is a preferred material for lenses, windows, output couplers and beam expanders for its low absorptivity at infrared wavelengths and its visible transmission. For high-power applications, it’s critical that the material bulk absorption and internal defect structure be carefully controlled, that minimum-damage polishing technology be employed, and the highest quality optical thin-film coatings are used. The material absorption is verified by CO2 laser vacuum calorimetry. Our quality assurance department provides testing and specific optics certification on request.

ZnSe is non-hygroscopic and chemically stable, unless treated with strong acids. It’s safe to use in most industrial field, and laboratory environments.



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